Abductors

Adductors

Hack squat machine

hack-squat-machine
 
Squat
The squat is performed by squatting down with a weight held across the upper back and standing up straight again. This is a compound exercise that also involves the glutes (buttocks) and, to a lesser extent, the hamstrings, calves, and the lower back. Lifting belts are sometimes used to help support the lower back, as are tight-fitting "squat suits" which compress the lower torso. The freeweight squat is one of 'The Big Three' powerlifting exercises, along with the deadlift and the bench press.
 
Equipment
Squats can be performed using only the practitioner's body weight. For weighted squats, a barbell is typically used, although the practitioner may instead hold dumbbells, kettlebells, or other weighted objects. Individuals uncomfortable performing freeweight squats may use a Smith machine or hack squat machine.
 
Major variants
 
Common variations include front squats, in which the weight is held across the upper chest, and box squats, in which the practitioner rests briefly on a box or bench at the bottom of the movement.
 
Leg press
 
Leg press machine
The leg press is performed while seated by pushing a weight away from the body with the feet. It is a compound exercise that also involves the glutes and, to a lesser extent, the hamstrings and the calves. Overloading the machine can result in serious injury if the sled moves uncontrollably towards the trainer.
 
Equipment
Leg press machine
 
Deadlift
 
 
Dumbbell deadlift.
The deadlift is performed by squatting down and lifting a weight off the floor with the hand until standing up straight again. Grips can be face down or opposing with one hand down and one hand up, to prevent dropping. Face up should not be used because this puts excess stress on the inner arms. This is a compound exercise that also involves the glutes, lower back, lats, trapezius (neck) and, to a lesser extent, the hamstrings and the calves. Lifting belts are often used to help support the lower back. The deadlift has two common variants, the Romanian deadlift and the straight-leg-deadlift. Each target the lower back, glutes and the hamstrings differently.
 
Equipment
Dumbbells, barbell, trapbar or Smith machine.
 
Major variants
Sumo (wider stance to emphasise the inner thighs); stiff legged (emphasizes hamstrings); straight-legged deadlift (emphasizes lower back).
[edit]Leg extension
 
 
Leg extension machine.
The leg extension is performed while seated by raising a weight out in front of the body with the feet. It is an isolation exercise for the quadriceps. Overtraining can cause patellar tendinitis.[4] The legs extension serves to also strengthen the muscles around the knees and is an exercise that is preferred by physical therapists.
Equipment
Dumbbell, cable machine or leg extension machine.
[edit]Wall Sit
The wall sit, also known as a static squat, is performed by placing one's back against a wall with feet shoulder width apart, and lowering the hips until the knees and hips are both at right angles. The position is held as long as possible. The exercise is used to strengthen the quadriceps.
Contrary to previous advice in this section, this exercise is NOT good for people with knee problems because the knees bear most of the load, especially when they are held at right angles (90 degrees).
Equipment
Body weight, wall or other flat vertical surface, exercise ball placed behind the back is optional as well
[edit]Hamstrings (back of legs)
[edit]Leg curl
 
 
Leg curl machine.
The leg curl is performed while lying face down on a bench, by raising a weight with the feet towards the buttocks. This is an isolation exercise for the hamstrings.[5]
 
Equipment
Dumbbell, cable machine or leg curl machine.
 
Major variants
Seated (using a leg curl machine variant); standing (one leg at a time).
 
Snatch
The snatch is one of the two current olympic weightlifting events (the other being the clean and jerk). The essence of the event is to lift a barbell from the platform to locked arms overhead in a smooth continuous movement. The barbell is pulled as high as the lifter can manage (typically to mid chest height) (the pull) at which point the barbell is flipped overhead. With relatively light weights (as in the "power snatch") locking of the arms may not require rebending the knees. However, as performed in contests, the weight is always heavy enough to demand that the lifter receive the bar in a squatting position, while at the same time flipping the weight so it moves in an arc directly overhead to locked arms. When the lifter is secure in this position, he rises (overhead squat), completing the lift.
 
Calves
Standing calf raise
 
Dumbbell standing calf raise.
The standing calf raise is performed by plantarflexing the feet to lift the body. If a weight is used, then it rests upon the shoulders, or is held in the hand(s). This is an isolation exercise for the calves; it particularly emphasises the gastrocnemius muscle, and recruits the soleus muscle.
 
Equipment
Body weight, dumbbells, barbell, Smith machine or standing calf raise machine.
 
Major variants
One leg (the other is held off the ground); donkey calf raise (bent over with a weight or machine pad on the lower back).
 
Seated calf raise
Seated calf raise machine
 
The seated calf raise is performed by flexing the feet to lift a weight held on the knees. This is an isolation exercise for the calves, and particularly emphasises the soleus muscle.[7]
 
Equipment
Barbell or seated calf raise machine; can also be done on a leg press machine.
 
Hips
Hip abduction
The hip abduction exercise is performed by opening the legs while sitting, thereby pushing a machine's pads resting on the outside of the hips apart. This is an isolation exercise for the gluteus muscles of the hip. It is not generally necessary to exercise the hip abductor muscles in isolation, as they are in use during exercises such as the squat and lunge.[8]
 
Equipment
Hip abduction and adduction machine.
Hip adduction
 
The hip adduction exercise is performed by closing the legs while sitting, thereby pushing a machine's pads resting on the inside of the hips together. This is an isolation exercise for the adductor muscles of the hip, and is generally only necessary for people practicing sports that overuse these muscles.[9]
 
Equipment
Hip abduction and adduction machine.
 

The gluteal muscles

 
The gluteus maximus is the largest of the gluteal muscles and one of the strongest muscles in the human body. It inserts at the iliotibial band and the gluteal tuberosity of the femur. Its action is to extend and to laterally rotate the hip, and also to extend the trunk.
 
Exercise and stretching
Any exercise that works and/or stretches the buttocks is suitable, for example lunges, hip thrusts, climbing stairs, fencing, bicycling, rowing, squats, arabesque, aerobics, and various specific exercises for the bottom.
 
Powerlifting exercises which are known to significantly strengthen the gluteal muscles include the squat, deadlift, leg press, feet in squats (chin on chest & stick glutes out) and good mornings (bend over with a bar on the shoulders with a light amount of weight).
 

Calves

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  1. Hamstrings

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